Covarubbias, more than a Caricaturist.

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You never know where you might find an illustrator. Museo Textil de Oaxaca is a jewel of a museum in the center of Oaxaca. The current exhibition, Gráfica textil de Miguel Covarrubias, focuses on the work of the influential Mexican caricaturist. Born in Mexico City in 1905, Covarubbias journeyed to New York City at age 19, just in time for the Roaring 20’s. Handsome and talented, he must also have been quite charming. He drew in Harlem nightclubs, at gallery openings and private parties. Soon his work was appearing in The New Yorker and Vanity Fair.

20140119-100426.jpg The show at Museo de Textil focuses on his interest in textiles. He and his wife Rosa lived for a time in Bali, where they collected and documented the island’s weaving traditions. They returned to Mexico and moved to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec on the Pacific coast of Oaxaca. His lithograph (top) shows Tehuana woman of the region washing in a stream. Covarubbias wrote and Illustrated the book Mexico South (1946) and noted similarities in the textiles of tropical Mexico and Bali. The line drawings above and below are from Mexico South.

20140119-101341.jpg Museo de Textil offers guided tours in English. The group I joined seemed most impressed by the huipile collected by Rosa Covarubbias that she lent to her friend Frida Kahlo, below.

20140119-104631.jpg To read more about the textiles of Covarrubias, an essay in Spanish by the curator Alejandro de Avila can be found here.

The textile show left me wanting to see more of Miguel Covarubbias’ work. Fortunately, the library at IAGO, the Instituto de Artes Graficos de Oaxaca, has a shelf full of books of his work. Below is a preliminary drawing he did in the 1924 for a visual essay titled, “The New Negro, a Distinct Type Created by the Colored Caberet in New York.”

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Personally, I find this drawing elegant and respectful. Some civil rights leaders considered his caricatures of negroes offensive. W.E.B. Dubois said, “I could exist quite happily if Covarubbias had never been born.” On the other hand, poet Langston Hughes considered Covarubbias a friend and visited him in Mexico.

Finally, here’s a trio of brilliant vintage caricatures by Covarubbias demontrating his mastery of line, paint, and wash techniques: Babe Ruth; Ernest Hemingway; and the photographer Alfred Stieglitz.

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Rocha Channels Posada. Dos Maestros de Caricatura

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Jose Guadalupe Posada and Catrina by Rocha

Jose Guadalupe Posada died 100 years ago. He is best known for his skeleton images such as Catrina. A working illustrator for Mexico City’s penny papers, Posada may not have thought of himself as an artist. Only after his death was he lionized by the great Mexican artists Jean Charlot and Diego Rivera. Rivera said that everything before Posada was (Spanish) colonial art, and so Posada’s illustrations were the beginning of postcolonial Mexican art.

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Benito Juarez by Rocha (detail)

A modern Mexican master of caricature Gonzalo Rocha has produced a wonderful homage to Posada. Rocha asks what would Posada draw if he was alive and working today? Posada would have plenty of gruesome subject matter: femicides in Ciudad Juarez; beheadings, narcotrafficking, corrupt union officials, rigged elections. Boldly crosshatched in India ink Rocha’s rogue’s gallery skewers Mexican politicians, millionaires, and fine artists. I had the good luck to see Rocha’s work in Oaxaca at the Biblioteca Henestrosa Library Gallery.

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A wall filled with local Oaxacan artists, living and dead, was a big hit at the exhibition. Alejandro Santiago, who died last year, is transported by figures from his masterpiece, 2501 Migrantes. Maestro Francisco Toledo, living, is pictured running barefoot with a kite.

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Dr. Lakra, living, gives Catrina, dead, a tattoo.

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I met these 3 Oaxacan maestros, Santiago, Toledo, and Lakra. I find Rocha’s caricatures brilliant. He makes drawing look easy, just like Posada did. Rocha is fairly generous in his representations of these artists. Rocha’s art gets angrier with political figures. Below is his take on Ulises Ruiz, the former governor of Oaxaca drawn as a folkloric dancer with a pineapple/hand grenade. Note the pile of skulls under his skirt. Ruiz was ruthless in his crackdown of dissent during 2006. Amnesty International concluded that his state operatives murdered at least 28 protesters. Many In Oaxaca say the number is far higher.

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Finally, for those unfamiliar with the famous Mexicans pictured above, see Rocha’s take on Amy Winehouse.

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All images copyright Galvino Rocha, reproduced here for purposes of review.